Papacy - A Historical Perspective
St. Nicholas I : 858-867 A.D.
105. Born in Rome. Elected April 24, 858 - died November 13, 867
After serious disagreement with the
Emperor Ludovic II, he
co-operated with him to set up an army against the Saracens.
He strongly defended the freedom of the Church against Photius.
He introduced the Assumption Day celebration on August 15th.
Nicholas I considered the ring as a symbol of the consecrated
union with the Church, the use of the wedding symbol of the consecrated
union with the Church, the use of the wedding ring dated back to the
period; in the past, Greek and Roman women used to wear a smooth ring
as a talisman.
During his pontificate, the Bulgarians were converted to
Christianity: a mission was sent to the court of King Boris I.
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes.
His Pontificate lasted 9 years and 7 months.
Hadrian II :867-872 A.D.
106. Born in Rome. Elected December 14, 867 - died December 14, 872.
It is worth mentioning the crowning of
Alfred the Great,
King of England (the first English King to be consecrated in Rome).
He tried to settle the ever more serious disagreement among
He called the 8th Ecumenical Council.
He ordered that the monks who were consecrated Bishops should
continue to wear the habit of their religious order.
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. His pontificate lasted 5
John VIII : 872-882 A.D.
107. Born in Rome. Elected December 13, 872 - died December 16, 882
He faced the Saracens with only the
help of Roman
inhabitants, defeating them in Terracian. After the crowning, Charles
the Gross refused to provide the help
he had promised and the Pope was defeated by the Arabs; he was
forced to pay a heavy tribute.
He defined as impious all those who stole something from sacred
Baronius and others write that he was the first to publish the
rights and the pre-eminence of Cardinals.
He died 10 years and 2 days after his election. He is buried in
the Vatican Grottoes.
Marinus I : 882-884 A.D.
108. Born in Gallese (Rome). Elected December 16, 882 - died May 15,
He firmly fostered Basil, The Eastern
Emperor, to take
action against schismatics.
He supposedly died from poisoning after having tried to
settle the disputes affecting Italy.
He sent Formoso back to Porto, from where he had been exiled, and
gave him his permission to come back to Rome.
In Nonantola he met the Emperor Charles the Gross, obtaining his
help against Guido of Spoleto, an enemy of the Church.
At the request of Alfred of England, he exempted the "Schola
Anglorum" of Rome from the payment of charges or taxes.
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. He governed the Church for 1
year and 5 months.
Back to Top
Index of Roman
© Format Copyright 2002 - 2022 by The M+G+R Foundation.
All rights reserved.
The M+G+R Foundation
Please Note: If the above dated image does not appear
on this document, it means that you are not viewing the original
document from our servers. Should you have reason to doubt the
authenticity of the document, we recommend that you access our server
again and click on the "Refresh" or "Reload" button of your Browser to
view the original document.