Papacy - A Historical Perspective
Pius IV : 1560-1565 A.D.
224. Born in Milan. Elected January 1st 1560 - died December 9,
He reconvoked and concluded the Council
He took action to ensure that Emanuele Filiberto was given back
the territory of Piedmont,
thereby making the Savoys a part of history.
He forgave all the guilty.
He consecrated Cardinal St. Charles Borromeo and appointed him Secretary
of State, this is the first time that this office appears in the
Pius IV donated the Palace of St. Mark, built upon request of Paul
II, to the Republic of Venice as a symbol of gratitude for having
allowed the development of the Council of Trent and to give the
Republic a distinguished site for its Embassy.
From 1925 to 1943 this palace was used by Benito Mussolini as his
personal office when he was leader of the Fascist government.
He was buried in S. Maria degli Angeli, according to his will. His
pontificate lasted about 6 years.
St Pius V : 1556-1572 A.D.
225. Born in Bosco. Elected January 17, 1566 - died May 1st 1572.
In order to stem heresy, he promoted
education among the
He excommunicated Elizabeth of England. He was the author
of Lepanto's Christian victory against the
He ordered the use of the Roman Missal, following the
decisions taken in Trent, although the churches
which had a different tradition for at least two hundred years were
A typical example is the Ambrosian Missal of Milan, which is quite
different from the Roman one, especially in terms of its texts and
Another church having its own rites is the Spanish Church of
Toledo. He is buried in S. Maria Maggiore, in the chapel of the
His pontificate lasted about 6 years and 4 months.
Gregory XIII : 1572-1585 A.D.
226. Born in Bologna. Elected May 25, 1572 - died April 1O, 1585.
He opened seminars in Vienna, Prague,
Graz and Japan.
He celebrated the 11th Jubilee Year (1575).
He reformed the calendar for the whole world and suddenly
October 4th became October 15th, the days left were eliminated.
As soon as he was elected, he abolished the habit of holding
an expensive banquet for cardinals and ambassadors on the occasion of a
crowning, as well as that of throwing money to the people.
Gregory ordered the building of the Torre dei Venti, which
represented the first section of the Vatican astronomical observatory,
one of the first in the world; two further towers were later added to
this structure in the papal gardens.
The Observatory was moved to Castel Gandolfo in 1933 He was buried
in the Basilica of St. Peter at his own expense. His pontificate lasted
12 years and 11 months.
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